Mudanya Armistice

E-mail Print PDF

İsmet İnönü Yabancı Generallerle

The negotiations, which began on the 3rd of October, frequently ended in deadlock when it came to the issue of the Straits and Eastern Thrace, to the degree that on the 6th of October Mustafa Kemal stated that the Turkish army would be mobilised in the face of a continuing diplomatic impasse. After the French stated their objections to a resumption of hostilities, negotiations resumed on the 7th. However, General Harington, citing the fact that Lord Curzon was in Paris and that he had thus received no communications, moved to have the conference postponed. It was during this deadlock, which continued until the recommencement of talks on the 9th of October, that the Allied generals, according to Franklin-Bouillon, expressed their dismay at the demeanour in which İnönü conducted himself towards his counterparts, whom he viewed as the defeated party.

The central issue of the talks which resumed on the 9th was Eastern Thrace. The Turks’ key demand was Greek withdrawal from the region up to the River Meriç and from the district of Karaağaç in Edirne. On the issues of both Eastern Thrace and the Straits, the majority of Turkish demands were met and at 06.00 on the morning of the 11th of October, the four texts of the Armistice of Mudanya, written in French, were signed in this room by the representatives of the Turkish government and the three Allied Powers. Although the offshore Greek delegation refused to sign the agreement, citing a lack of authority to do so, General Harington maintained that this was no impediment to the legitimacy and validity of the document. Three days later, on the 14th of October, the Greek representative in Istanbul Sonopoulos announced his country’s acceptance of the armistice. Thus, the Turkish Government had achieved what it had set out to do and had reclaimed Thrace without a single bullet being fired.

The Terms of the Armistice

The ceasefire negotiations, during which there were frequent tense moments, to the extent that negotiations often came to an abrupt halt and the Turkish military prepared for mobilisation, ended on 11 October 1922 with the signing of an agreement.

The following are amongst the key rulings in the fourteen terms of the armistice:

  • The armistice was to come into effect three days after the signing, on the night of the 14-15th of October
  • Hostilities between the Greek and Turkish armed forces were to come to an end
  • The Greek forces were to leave Eastern Thrace within 15 days, with Allied forces overseeing the transfer of administration of the region to Turkish authorities within 30 days
  • Turkish forces were not to enter Thrace until the signing of an official ceasefire; however, for reasons of internal security a gendarmerie force not exceeding 8,000 would be sent to the region

Mudanya Armistice Museum Rooms

The Delegates’ Chamber

This room was Ismet Pasha and the Turkish delegation’s consultation room. It was in this room that they met to discuss the issues and proposals of the day. Telegrams to and from Mustafa Kemal were also analysed in this room. The proceedings and decisions of this room were of major significance in terms of the resolution of the Eastern Thrace and Bosphorus issues. It was here that General Harington, with his interpreter Colonel Heywood, hammered out a deal with Ismet Pasha and Asım Gündüz over the issue of the Straits, and where Harington informed Ismet Pasha in all sincerity that Britain truly desired peace. Ismet Pasha studied the proceedings of the conference here and noticed that the text of the proceedings submitted to the Turkish delegation differed from the actual decisions made during the talks, in particular over the issues of Eastern Thrace and the district of Karaağaç being handed over to the Turks. It was here that these discrepancies were discussed with General Harington and the final version of the agreement – the one that was eventually signed – drawn up.

İsmet İnönü ‘s Quarters

The talks reached a deadlock between the 6th and 9th of October. It was during this period that Ismet İnönü brought his fist down in anger on the mirrored table to your right and cracked its marble surface. In his anger, İnönü swore that the Turkish armed forces would remobilise and that the Turkish nation would fight for their freedom until the very last man. This show of resolve shattered the pressure the Allied forces had been applying to the Turkish delegation and led to their acceptance of the Turkish demands.

You are here: Ana Sayfa